This brightly illustrated picture book introduces the concept
of money, first by looking at its development as an alternative to bartering and then by explaining the many forms of money, from primitive rocks, feathers, and metal lumps to the familiar coins and paper bills to alternatives such as checks, credit cards, and digital forms of payment. Adler does a particularly good job explaining the inconvenience of
bartering through child-friendly examples such as How would a baker trade for a house? How many loaves of bread would he have to trade? And why would anybody want so much bread? Using flat colors and stylized designs, Millers upbeat digital artwork helps to clarify points made in the text, while adding occasional bits of visual humor.
The End of Money: Toward a New, World Economy under the Credit Unit System describes a viable replacement for the monetary system. Humanity has made incredible strides in so many areas - in computers, communications, medicine, the physical sciences, transportation, etc. - yet it continues to hold on to an economic system that has been in use for centuries. Money has changed in form and no longer entails just metal coins and paper currency, but also credit/debit cards, electronic money, etc. Even so, it is still age-old money dressed up in modern forms and it is keeping humanity from evolving into a society in which everybody is prosperous, thriving and happy. Under the Credit Unit System: 1) The monetary system and all forms of money are eliminated, as is everything connected with them: profits/losses; costs of production, distribution and consumption; wages; taxes; insurance; accounting and bookkeeping; financial institutions; stocks and bonds; economic cycles entailing inflation, deflation and stagflation; exchange rates; etc. There are no corporations or for-profit companies. There is no gulf between the rich and the poor. 2) All the basic material things needed for a prosperous life, such as food staples, total health care, basic housing, public transportation, utilities, basic clothing and basic education are freely provided to everyone. 3) All money-related crimes, corruption, exploitation and identity theft are eliminated. Moreover, money-caused marital problems, suicides and chemical addictions are eliminated. 4) Viable solutions that cost nothing can be implemented for climate change, pollution cleanup, food and water shortages, and all such dire problems. Individuals are compensated for their labor with Credit Units or CUs, which are units of value that are periodically issued to individuals' personal file by a central computer; they do not receive CUs from the entity they work for. Individuals receive CUs according to their job position and the length of time they have been employed at that position. They do not receive CUs for the services they provide or for the products they produce or distribute. For instance, a doctor receives X number of CUs for being a doctor, not for the services she provides as a doctor. A wheat farmer receives X number of CUs for being a wheat farmer, not for the wheat he produces. A computer store owner receives X number of CUs for being a computer store owner, not for the computer products she offers. Since there are no costs of doing business at any point along the production chain, the items mentioned in #2 above can be provided to everyone CU-free. They use their CUs to acquire products and services beyond these CU-free basics. When a person acquires such a product or service, the CUs are deleted from his or her personal file. They do not go to the business (businesses and other non-flesh-and blood entities cannot receive CUs). They do not go anywhere - they simply vanish. Lastly, CUs are non-transferrable from one individual to another, or from a person to him or herself. If person X wants to transfer her car to person Y for an agreed-upon number of CUs, they both have to go to a Credit Unit Service Center, where an authorized employee adds the agreed-upon number of CUs to X's personal file and deletes that number from Y's personal file. The CUs are not transferred from X's file to Y's file. All property transfers are carried out in this way. Thus bribery and embezzlement are impossible. The book goes into much more detail regarding these procedures and it explains how the Credit Unit System would be implemented and how it would apply to other areas such as credit, retirement, the legal system, R&D, government, business entities, etc. It explains the 3 fatal flaws inherent to the monetary system and how the Credit Unit System eliminates them.
Early in the year 1789 the French nation found itself in deep financial embarrassment; and this was speedily followed by calls for an issue of paper money. By August 1, 1795, some six years later, the gold 25 francs coin was worth in paper, 920 francs; on September 1st, 1,200 francs; on November 1st, 2,600 francs; on December 1st, 3,050 francs. In February, 1796, it was worth 7,200 francs or one franc in gold was worth 288 francs in paper. Prices of all commodities went up nearly in proportion. This story, of how a first world nation turned to paper money and destroyed itself, its people and its economy in the process, even arguably setting in motion the rise to power of Napoleon Bonaparte, is told in this book by Andrew Dickson White, academic, ambassador and author. As ever, history remains our best guide of what the future holds, and, considering our Fiat money system today, sounds a warning call that should be heeded.
This book describes new methodological and technological approaches to corpus building and presents recent research based on the "Norwegian Newspaper Corpus". This is a large monitor corpus of contemporary Norwegian language, compiled through daily harvesting of web newspapers. The book gives an overview of the corpus and its system architecture, and presents tools used for tasks such as text harvesting, annotation, topic classification and extraction and frequency profiling of new words and phrases. Among the innovative technologies is Corpuscle, a corpus query engine and management system which is flexible enough to handle very large corpora in an efficient way. The individual research contributions based on the corpus explore different aspects of Norwegian, including the occurrence of anglicisms, neologisms and terminology, and the use of metonymy and metaphor in newspaper language. The book also describes an innovative method of applying correspondence analysis and implicational analysis to investigate interdependencies between morphosyntactic variants.
The place of money capital in the theory of the firm has remained a relatively neglected question in traditions of economic analysis. In this highly integrative work, issues in production, pricing, capital investment and financial theory are brought to new levels of interdependence. Developing a three-part argument, Money Capital in the Theory of the Firm deals successively with the theoretical issues and analytic motivation, the neoclassical tradition and postclassical perspectives. In doing so, it presents a self-contained foundation in the basic structures of microeconomic analysis relating to optimize decision making in the firm and in the accounting concepts and statistical apparatus of probability theory relevant to the neoclassical aspects of the argument. Additionally, the book provides the essential mathematical development of such advanced topics as utility functions defined over stochastic arguments, the equilibrium theory of financial asset prices and yields, the cost of money capital, and investment decision criteria. This book makes an important contribution to the formation of new and analytically richer perspectives in the important area of economics it addresses. It will be of particular interest to those working in economic theory and microeconomics, and their advanced students.
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